IVF program: In Vitro Fertilization

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Guarantee IVF package in Ukraine. IVF + PGD (NGS): healthy embryo selection

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IVF + PGD (NGS): healthy embryo selection “VIP Guarantee” up to baby birth

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  • Support for surrogate motherhood and egg donation programs with remote participation A wide network of partner lawyers around the world to simplify legalization issues We conclude a formal contract that is recognized in Europe and the world The possibility of reimbursing part of the payment for your health insurance The package price includes the cost of a surrogate mother Guest services are provided for all our packages Highly qualified medical staff The ability to select an egg donor by photo, video, including using intelligent software search on a donor base Pregnancy management / management of the pregnancy with informing about the condition of the fetus and the surrogate mother
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project video

Natalya Chumakova, gynecologist, ultrasonic diagnostics specialist, fertility specialist, told what feelings and fears are experienced by the clients before the IVF and what factors increase the probability of successful IVF and birth of a healthy child. watch the full video

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Conversion to egg donation in case of no success with own eggs; egg donation up to pregnancy

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Healthy embryo selection by PGD (NGS)

Sex determination

Sex selection

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New IVF attempts in case of pregnancy termination after 12th week

IVF services

Healthy baby birth Guarantee

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17 000 EURO






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additional costs

Medical care up to 12th week



Up to 12th week

Comfort class


4500 euro









28 500 EURO

Full examination

Chromosomes + genes level


Moderate conditions care



Included as option Plan B




limited number with own eggs

Up to baby birth




Up to baby birth

Business class











34 500 EURO




Advanced cases full coverage


Unlimited. Full Guarantee success with own eggs

Included as option Plan B



Included as special order

Included sex selection

Up to baby birth




Up to baby birth

Lux / advanced business class











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  • How does in vitro fertilization work?
  • Advantages to In-Vitro Fertilization
  • Disadvantages of in Vitro Fertilization
  • Giving Birth to Children after IVF
  • In Vitro Fertilization in Ukraine (IVF)
  • Which IVF Clinic to Choose?
  • IVF vs ICSI
  • In Vitro Fertilization Laws In United States
  • Court Judgments on IVF
  • Does IVF Increase Risk of Cancer?
  • Can IVF Cause Ovarian Cancer?
  • Does IVF Cause Ovarian Cysts?
  • IVF Questions to Ask

How does in vitro fertilization work? What tests should IVF participants undergo? How is the procedure carried out? What determines the effectiveness of the treatment? Find all the information you need i this post.


How IVF Works Step by Step

For many fertility-challenged couples, in vitro fertilization is the only way to have biological children. This method of reproductive medicine has been used around the world for almost 40 years and has proved to be an effective treatment for infertility. IVF can help even in cases where natural conception is almost impossible. What is the procedure, how does in vitro fertilization work, and how do couples get prepared for it?

Preparation as the First Step of IVF

If you have decided to undergo the procedure, be ready to pass an extensive examination before getting into the IVF program. The results of the analysis and research will help find the cause of infertility and choose the right and effective treatment.

These are some of the diagnostic procedures that future parents need to undergo:

  • Take a blood test for general analysis, biochemical and hormonal profiles, and coagulation. It is also necessary to determine the blood group and Rh factor;
  • Check blood for viral hepatitis, syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection);
  • Determine the levels of certain hormones in the bloodstream;
  • Check the sperm;
  • Take a fluorographic examination;
  • Take laboratory tests for infections that can later affect the development of pregnancy;
  • Make an electrocardiogram (ECG);
  • According to the indications, hysteroscopy may be prescribed (the examination of the uterus from the inside with the help of special equipment).

How IVF Is Carried out

Once all the examinations are conducted, the doctor determines the type of IVF procedure to be carried out in a specific case. So how the method of ivf works step by step? The very procedure of in vitro fertilization can be divided into several stages.

  1. Stimulation of the ovulation – at this stage, a woman undergoes hormonal therapy. It is necessary for hormones not to accelerate the maturation of eggs and obtain several oocytes at once.
  2. Puncture of ovarian follicles – the manipulation is performed under general anesthesia. With the help of ultrasound, the location of mature follicles is determined and the follicular fluid is taken from them. Being taken from the female body, unripe eggs are placed in the nutrient environment for maturation.
  3. Fertilization of eggs – being taken from the follicular fluid, the eggs are transferred to a nutrient medium and placed in an incubator (temperature - 37° C; carbon dioxide concentration – 5%). The embryologist processes the sperm, and extracts a fraction of morphologically full-fledged active-motile spermatozoa. Together with the spermatozoa, the egg is placed into the test tube.
  4. Cultivation of embryos – it is necessary to wait 5 days for embryos to grow. Healthy embryos with a good fission rate are selected for insertion into the uterine cavity. How ivf works step by step video will give you more understanding of the method.
  5. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) – the two manipulations are carried out at the stage of embryo selection. If future parents have genetic diseases, a geneticist performs diagnostics uncovering possible pathologies. The most common indication for PGD and PGS is the woman's age of more than 40 years.
  6. Transfer of embryos to the uterus – with a sterile catheter, the selected embryos are injected into the uterus of a future mother. Usually, more than one embryo is used.
  7. Cryopreservation – if several "good" embryos are formed, the doctor can offer cryopreservation. This allows to save the embryos in case the IVF attempt fails. It is also possible to freeze germ cells (spermatozoa or ovules) and keep them "for the future".
  8. Hormonal support – two weeks after the transfer of embryos, a woman starts taking hormones for an embryo to develop normally.
  9. Diagnosis of pregnancy – in 12-14 days after the transplantation of embryos, it is possible to conclude whether the procedure has been successful. Results of hCG can give you an answer. The increased level of the hormone indicates the pregnancy. This is why in vitro fertilization method is good.

The effectiveness of the procedure depends on the physical condition of the female organism and reaches 30%.

Notes: We have clinics in Ukraine and Czech Republic. There are ivf packages offers for Austria, Denmark, Spain, UK, Norway, Sweden and other Europe countries.

Advantages to In-Vitro Fertilization

Nowadays, far from every woman can easily become a mother due to various health problems, unfavorable ecological conditions, constant stresses, and many other external factors. Several years ago, there was no treatment for the condition, and people had to tolerate the problem. But today, with the development of reproductive technology (IVF), many fertility-challenged couples can become parents to a native child.


Thanks to in vitro fertilization, the process of conception takes place in a laboratory tube. The method of IVF conception will be an ideal option for couples who have a number of obstacles to the conception in a natural way. Apart from the delivery of a child, there are many other advantages to in vitro fertilization you should consider before deciding on whether to undergo the procedure.

In Vitro Fertilization Advantages

  1. Child Delivery

    The main advantage of using a popular and positively proven method is the birth of a child. Many couples due to health problems may be deprived of the opportunity to become parents. Modern technology allows artificial insemination. When a woman's health allows her to carry fetus to term herself, she can fully feel the joy of motherhood. If there are gynecological and other diseases, the couple can always use the services of a surrogate mother. In this case, reproductive cells of the couple will be used, so the newborn baby will be their biological child.

    In order for the procedure of in vitro fertilization to be successful, the couple should undergo mediсal tests at its preliminary stage. The main goal of the health supervision is to determine the possibility of the conception, pregnancy, and the subsequent child delivery. IVF is carried out in a test tube, with the embryo being afterwards inserted into the uterus of the future mother. Before IVF, a woman must undergo hormonal therapy, which increases the chances of pregnancy and successful bearing of the child.

  2. Health Conditions Are Not an Obstacle

    One of the biggest benefits to in vitro fertilization is that even couples having serious health conditions can become parents. IVF is effective even in particularly difficult cases, for example, when a woman has congenital or acquired defects of the organs of the endocrine and reproductive system. Thanks to this assisted reproductive technology, a woman with a congenital or acquired infringement of the reproductive system can become a mother. So, even the obstruction of the fallopian tubes is not an obstacle. Pregnancy and childbirth proceed in exactly the same way as with natural insemination. In addition, according to gynecologists and geneticists, biological material undergoes a thorough medical examination, thereby significantly reducing the risk of birth of children with hereditary and genetic diseases.

  3. The Ability to Timely Detect Pathologies of Fetal Development

    During pregnancy after IVF, the patient is constantly followed up by a doctor. This means that even the smallest changes and deviations will be detected in time and eliminated without any significant risks to health and life of the patient.

  4. High Probability of Bearing a Healthy Baby

    The risk of the birth of a child with mental or physical abnormalities is just a common myth. According to the latest statistics, IVF reduces all the risks associated with any health issues the child may suffer from. Even if a mother deals with any health-related complications, none of them will result in poor child’s health.

  5. Possibility of Pregnancy even after 40 and 50

    As you know, after about the age of 30-35, the amount of ootids in the female body begins to gradually decrease, which reduces the possibility of conception and pregnancy after 40 to a minimum. In-vitro fertilization changes stereotypes. The procedure allows a woman become a mother at almost any age. What’s important here is the proper health condition of a woman. Obviously, this is one of the biggest advantages of the in vitro fertilization in the modern world when women are reasonably concentrated on their career first.

  6. Possibility to Give Birth to a Child with High Intellectual Development

    The essence of IVF is selecting the best embryos for transplantation into the uterus. Considering the fact that the high-quality biological material is used for the conception, this increases the chances of a highly intellectually-developed child being born.

All in all, in vitro fertilization has a lot of benefits for future parents. If you want to know more about what are advantages to in vitro fertilization, consult a physician.


Disadvantages of in Vitro Fertilization

Extracorporeal fertilization (in vitro fertilization) is a common variant of assisted reproductive technologies. The treatment allows couples having difficulties with the conception to have a native child. The difference between the IVF and other methods of artificial insemination is that the ootid with the spermatozoon it transferred outside the human body; the process of ovum fertilization is carried out in the laboratory. Only after being impregnated, it is placed in the uterus of the future mother for gestation. Although in vitro fertilization deals with a problem of infertility, it has some disadvantages you should be aware of.

What Are the Disadvantages of in Vitro Fertilization?

  1. Multifetal Pregnancy

    Resorting to IVF, a couple has a chance to give birth to twins or triplets. This is due to the fact that initially several embryos are transferred to the uterus. Of course, having two or three children will be a great joy for the fertility-challenged couple. However, there are disadvantages to in vitro fertilization as well since multifetal pregnancy can be accompanied by complications and miscarriages.

  2. Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome

    In vitro fertilization involves the intake of special stimulant medications. The drugs reduce the risks that the female body will reject the fertilized ovum. At the same time, they can cause ovarian hyperstimulation, leading to the development of oncological pathologies or ectopic pregnancy after the embryo has been fixed in the tubes. One can recognize the syndrome when dealing with the following symptoms:

    • abdominal pain;
    • nausea;
    • fatigue;
    • flatulence.
  3. Increased Ovarian Activity and Bleeding

    After the ovulation stimulation, the ovaries get bigger. Under such conditions, they are too active and can defect each other. This causes problems with the blood flow in twisted ovaries, leading to their death. After IVF, there may occur another dangerous complication – bleeding from the ovarian cyst. This pathological process is characterized by the following symptoms: nausea, fever, fatigue, and pain in the abdomen. The two complications are not amenable to conservative therapy and can be treated with laparoscopy only.

  4. Cancer Development

    Wondering what are disadvantages of in vitro fertilization and if cancer can be one of them? A lot of research has been done on the matter; the experiments have established a link between IVF and oncology. Although a relationship between IVF and breast cancer has been found, researchers are not yet sure that it is hormonal medicines what leads to the development of cancer.

  5. Problems of Psychological Nature

    If people decide to resort to IVF, then they need to understand that the procedure requires decent cash investments. Of course, all couples hope that they will feel the happiness of being parents after the very first procedure. However, it often happens that the first IVF doesn’t bring the long-awaited pregnancy. As a result, people feel resentment, anger, and disappointment, which may cause psychological infertility.

Thanks to IVF, today many fertility-challenged couples can become parents. However, it is also important to take into account all the disadvantages associated with the in vitro fertilization before going through the procedure.


Giving Birth to Children after IVF

The procedure of in vitro fertilization for many couples is the only chance to conceive a child, to become happy parents and to make a dream come true. But tormented by doubts about the health of future children future parents are sometimes frightened so much that it is impossible to decide on IVF. Giving birth to children after the IVF is a sensitive issue; a lot of negative response can be heard and read. But what are things in reality, what does science say about this and what are real examples from life?

General Information

Lisa Brown from England has initiated successful attempts at in vitro fertilization. She is the IVF girl who became the first child to be born successfully from a test tube in 1978. Subsequently, over incomplete forty years more than 5 million children were born with the help of such a breakthrough in reproductive technologies as the IVF procedure.

To the great regret, however progressive is the world in which revolutions in science, technologies, views take place children after the IVF for many people remain something unnatural. But in reality the only difference of such children from those conceived naturally is in the history of their parents’ illness. Most of the arguments about the fact that they are born inferior and with different pathologies are based on various conjectures and assumptions.

IVF planning, other than medical aspects – examination and diagnosis, preparatory treatment and virtually fertilization followed by fetus transplantation often include moral aspects as well. Somebody is hampered by religion, somebody by public opinion; some have unreasonable fears and prejudices. But children born after the IVF are always wanted, loved and have health problems similar to those of all other children, neither more nor less. And it is the fact that in today’s world all children are generally sick more often and their illnesses are more complicated that warrants study.

Myths and Reality of the IVF Impact on Children

Perhaps one of the biggest fears frightening future parents is the fear that children after the IVF are infertile. This myth is successfully debunked by the abovementioned Lisa Brown who is the happy mother of two babies conceived naturally. A striking example that refutes the fear of infertility is also Elena Dontsova the first IVF child in the USSR who also conceived and gave birth to a baby. And it takes much longer than 40 years to assert with confidence that IVF children will not be able to have offspring.

Birth of sick children after the IVF is not due to the very procedure of in vitro fertilization but to the attendant factors. It is necessary to clearly understand that married couples with various problems which in fact do not allow them to conceive children themselves resort to ART. Therefore, certain pathologies may occur with children’s health. Often the disease is simply inherited.

The average age of the IVF mother is 35 years and more. This situation in general for a woman in labor is considered not too favorable and carries in itself possible risks for the normal course of pregnancy, course of birth and fetus itself. But the existing pre-implantation diagnosis of the embryo which makes it possible to identify possible severe pathogens at such an early stage, just "plays into the hands" of the IVF pregnancy.

Children after IVF: Statistics and Facts

A variety of large-scale studies conducted around the world sometimes contradict each other and themselves. One of the latest conducted in the US claims that children conceived with the help of IVF have 2 to 4 times increased risk of harelip, pathologies with the cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract.

Other foreign studies do not find differences in mental, physical, psychological development between children conceived naturally and through ART. Therewith, the risk of certain cancers increases. But with the allowance! The initial health of parents, their bad habits, age of the mother and the level of environmental impact were not taken into account during the study. The risks are balanced after taking into account these aspects.

Such "popular" complications of IVF pregnancy as premature birth, low birth weight, increased risk of fetal hypoxia and caesarean section can be accurately predicted in ordinary pregnant women. There is no official confirmatory data on this subject. The thing is not in the IVF procedure but in the cause of infertility, health and way of life of spouses.

In vitro fertilization is a fairly young direction in medicine as in science. Therefore, the genuine interest of doctors and scientists to how IVF children grow, consequences of the procedure on their health is so great. It is logical to assume that if they try to find all sorts of abnormalities and abnormalities of development in all children today with such fervor and care they would undoubtedly find them.


In Vitro Fertilization in Ukraine (IVF)

In vitro fertilization is one of the assisted reproductive techniques aimed at solving the problem of infertility. Nowadays, many couples who face this diagnosis go abroad to receive treatment, as sometimes neighboring states can provide more modern conditions at an affordable cost. IVF clinics in Ukraine are not an exception.

Modern Ukraine attracts many medical tourists who have problems with the conception. To a large extent, the popularity of clinics specializing in IVF, ICSI, egg donation, and surrogate motherhood in Ukraine is associated with the sufficiently low cost of an in vitro fertilization compared to the prices for similar services offered in Europe or the USA.

Best clinics in Ukraine (IVF) are ready to offer foreign patients a wide range of infertility treatment with the best programs and techniques. High-tech reproductive programs in Ukraine have made it possible for many families to feel the joy of motherhood and paternity.


Each IVF clinic of Ukraine has extensive experience in the infertility treatment and can deal with any problem associated with the reproductive health of the patient. In cases when it is recommended to access the services of a surrogate mother or an egg donor, Ukrainian clinics have a large donor base you can turn to. In addition to the considerably low IVF cost, Ukrainian legislation is loyal to reproductive programs and takes the side of biological parents, which eases the process of issuing the birth certificate of the child. What is more, the clinics of Ukraine guarantee full preservation of anonymity to each patient.

Before starting the program of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine, doctors always conduct a thorough examination of both partners who cannot conceive naturally for a long time. After the medical tests, it is possible to determine a real cause of the problem and to select the most appropriate therapy.

Facts about IVF in Ukraine

  • 50-70% reproductive programs and surrogate motherhood programs are cheaper than in other countries;
  • legislation on reproductive medicine in Ukraine is liberal and permits programs of donation and surrogate motherhood, fully legally protecting the rights of biological parents and issuing the birth certificate of the child;
  • the high success rate of reproductive programs;
  • all doctors with experience of at least 10 years; many of them are candidates and doctors of medical sciences;
  • ultra-modern equipment of European and American manufacturers;
  • diagnostic base providing a comprehensive examination of infertile couples (it is included in the cost of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine);
  • a vast experience in the treatment of complex cases of infertility;
  • own bank of donor sperm and oocytes; legal surrogate motherhood programs;
  • all examinations and tests for pregnancy planning and infertility treatment are conducted in one place;
  • personal coordinators who are in contact 24/7.

However, what makes almost all fertility-challenged couples seek for treatment in Ukraine is affordable prices for a full range for reproductive medicine services. The average cost of IVF in Ukraine is several times cheaper than prices for in vitro fertilization in the USA.

What Methodologies Are Included in the In Vitro Fertilization Cost?

When dealing with the problem of infertility, Ukrainian clinics provide the following package of services:

  • Carrying out the correct treatment of pathologies that can be transmitted sexually, infectious and gynecological diseases;
  • Solution of the problem of infertility associated with the immune system challenges;
  • Therapy of endocrine infertility, which includes a full course of ovaries stimulation and menstrual cycle normalization;
  • Carrying out the procedure of in vitro fertilization, insemination of the egg with the sperm of the husband or a donor;
  • Carrying out ART – an auxiliary reproductive technology which involves the intracytoplasmic injections into the oocyte in case of male infertility, sperm aspiration, and the use of cryopreserved blastocysts (embryos).

Although the cost of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine is considerably low, this in no way affects the level of the medicine. The quality of medical services provided in Ukraine is not inferior to identical treatment in the USA and European countries. It provides comprehensive legal assistance and guarantees confidentiality to each patient.

How Much Does In Vitro Fertilization Cost in Ukraine?

The cost of IVF in Ukraine depends on the clinic and a package of services you choose. For example, conducting IVF using the ICSI method under anesthesia costs approximately $ 3,500, and the package includes the following procedures in its cost:

  • Ovaries stimulation;
  • Puncture of ovaries (under anesthesia);
  • Preparation of the sperm of the husband using HTF technology;
  • Cultivation of oocytes using ICSI technology;
  • Embryos transfer into the uterine cavity of the future mother.

In case you need a surrogate motherhood service with the use of donor eggs or a biological mother, medical care will cost about $ 38,000.


Which IVF Clinic to Choose?

boast of high success rates. How not to be mistaken and which IVF clinic to choose? We have selected for you several tips on which clinic for IVF to use.

  1. Research List and Customer Review

    Before deciding on the IVF clinic, do research and try to find customer reviews that would prove professionalism and quality assistance provided in the medical setting. Without having feedback from real customers, it is impossible to understand whether the clinic is a good/ bad one.

  2. Level of Doctors

    Still do not know which IVF clinic to choose? Read biographies of the doctors working there. Where did the leading specialists study and work? What specialization do they have? Do they have any scientific degrees? This information will help you understand the proficiency level of the clinic.

  3. Equipment

    Half of the success of the IVF treatment depends on the quality of the laboratory equipment used in the procedure. Sex cells and embryos are very sensitive. The slightest admixtures or germs can be fatal. Therefore, in the professional laboratories, there are high-precision air filters that purify the air under pressure.

  4. Efficiency or Statistics

    When selecting a medical fertility center, check which of IVF clinics have the best results. In different clinics, success rates are different; they may vary from 30 to 60%. However, you should not believe the first figure found online – it can be fake. But even if these figures are true, doctors could go to certain tricks to reach them. For example, if doctors work with the easiest cases of infertility, they can reach high chances of pregnancy. So the success rate will be high. This means that such clinics will be hardly able to help patients with difficult diagnoses.

    There is another variant of cheating on statistics. To increase the success rates, doctors transfer several embryos, which often leads to multiple pregnancies. To date, no more than two embryos are allowed to be implanted at a time. However, it is still recommended that one embryo is transferred into the uterus. Monotocous pregnancy is less risky for the baby and the mother.

  5. In vitro fertilization surrogate cost

    Modern reproductive technologies are very complex and expensive today. This is an objective reality, and there is nothing to do about that. You need to pay for everything, starting from drugs and tools for sex cells extraction to all the medical tests you need to undergo before the procedure. Therefore, it is impossible to make this treatment cheap. Of course, no one wants to overpay; it is always better to save money. However, when selecting a clinic, make sure that its offered price is not lower the comparative costs. Otherwise, it should be a close call to you.

  6. License

    It is extremely important to check whether the clinic has obtained a license, all necessary certificates and permission documentation. First of all, the clinic must have a license that authorizes its functioning. Also, pay attention to the certificates obtained both by a clinic and a doctor. The absence of the documentation means that there is something wrong with the medical center and it is better not to deal with it.

  7. Guarantees

    Some clinics provide guarantees to their customers, but it is not a general rule for all medical centers. If the institution promises to return the money to the patient in case of failure, it is a good sign. The clinic most probably has high success rates.



Artificial insemination is one of the technological tools for facilitating conception among couples who cannot conceive naturally. Under this category, we have two main methods namely, In-vitro fertilization (IVF) and Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The former has been around for longer while the latter was incepted in 1992. The IVF option involves a standard insemination process while ICSI entails the injection of vibrant spermatozoa into a mature and fertile egg. But how do these two methods, which facilitate the same process, differ? Which of these two is a better option and under which circumstances is it ideal? The following sections of the post will answer these questions as we settle the ivf vs icsi debate.

How The Methods Differ

Initially, we saw that these two techniques achieve the same result, as they assist with child conception efficiently. In current section, we show how they differ even though they are essentially the same. The reason is that ICSI is a later advanced variation of its predecessor — the IVF method. To an average user without corresponding medical education, the two methods seem similar because all the processes that are included into these techniques are essentially the same. For instance, the scans, ovulation medications, egg harvesting, and fetus transfer are similar.

But how does the difference come in? The techniques only differ based on what goes on in the lab. In the IVF process, the sperm fertilize the eggs in a Petri dish, and then the eggs that seem healthy and viable are implanted into the woman’s uterus. However, ICSI, the second method, requires greater support to reach the egg using micromanipulators, because in this method, the egg that is going to be fertilized is inseminated right inside the woman’s body.

When is ICSI Used?

Another key area we need to uncover in the icsi vs ivf debate is usage. In the section, we examine the most suitable conditions under which ICSI takes place. Considering that ICSI technique has been developed later and thus is believed to be more efficient, it is recommended to try this one after IVF has been tried out. The technique is used when:

  • Attempts to conceive using IVF have failed
  • The man suffers from a low sperm count
  • The man’s sperms are abnormally shaped
  • The man’s sperms have low motility
  • The conception rate has been low
  • There is a need to use frozen sperm

Lastly, what are the success rates and limitations of these two methods? Here, we end this ivf against icsi debate by showing you how much success they deliver. Even though their success rate is nearly the same, some recent studies have indicated that ICSI offers users higher conception chances. However, it has a few shortcomings, namely:

  • It needs more complex lab settings and screening
  • It does not allow for the natural flow of sperms towards the egg as in the IVF process
  • It needs more highly trained embryologists compared to IVF

With this short and insightful coverage, we hope that the ivf with icsi debate has answered your questions. We believe these insights will help you make the right decision.

ivf law

In Vitro Fertilization Laws In United States

What may be considered legal in one country is completely forbidden in another. It is important to know your rights and understand the laws that exist so you can choose a place and facility that will provide you with the best chance of success.

Just like any other type of reproductive technology, IVF in the US operates under a certain level of legal provisions and limits. In the US, most of the aspects of this technology are regulated by some in vitro fertilization laws. The reason is that the process includes the lives of many stakeholders who require protection. For instance, these laws are supposed to protect donors, parents, children, and doctors. Moreover, they are necessary for determining and dictating who should access what, the available options, and the processes that can be used. However, it is important to remember that these ivf laws vary across states. This variation means that what is legal in one state could be illegal in another. Therefore, if the intended parents opt for the procedure, it is possible for them to consider moving to a different state for a while, or even perhaps to move to a different country. In any case, being informed about rights and laws is a crucial issue.

In the remaining sections of this post, we shall look at some of the main areas that these laws cover.

Bodily Injury

The first area where ivf laws by the state apply in the US is physical harm. Here, the law in all the states protects all IVF complainants against bodily injuries. It is good to note that even a small injury resulting from a doctor’s negligence could result in a legal tussle, suing the doctor for compensation. However, this harm does not include mere surgical actions by doctors. For instance, two women came out complaining that the process of removing eggs from their bodies and the surgery amounted to injury because they felt pain. However, the court dismissed their petition because they had given their consent to the process.

Breach of Contract

Another area where the law applies in the US is breach of contract. This scope of legal application does not include any personal injury caused by the neglect of the provisions of an agreement by concerned parties. Instead, it focuses on the failure by one or the parties in a contract to perform their agreed duties. So, if the clinic dismisses the contract without proper explanation, the customers should sue it.

Claims Failure

Damages resulting from emotional distress are another area where in vitro fertilization legal cases have been reported. A good example of such cases happened in 1998 where a childless couple approached a clinic and chose a donor resembling the husband. Instead of using his sperm, the clinic used another donor’s sperms. Eventually, they had three kids who never resembled any of the parents. The caouple was distressed by the facility’s negligent behavior. In their case, they were emotionally distressed but they could not sue the fraudulent clinic owners for double-dealing them. The couple sued the clinic but unfortunately, it lost the case, because the law could not establish any bodily harm connected to their emotional misery.

Later, other couples have come up with the same cases but currently, common law does not permit recovery for emotional damage inflicted by negligence without physical injury. We hope that sometime the law will be amended to address such loopholes.

Property Loss

The last legal area will examine is property loss resulting from IVF procedures. In recent past, IVF complainants have claimed to have lost property. For instance, in 2002, three ladies come to court seeking compensation for the loss of their embryos. In this case, the court permitted it to proceed while attaching emotional distress to it because they had lost indispensable property. In this case, the court determined that they were seeking to recover embryos, and not the prospects of conception as the respondent had tried to argue.

We hope our brief coverage of in vitro fertilization laws in United States has opened your eyes to what goes on in the legal aspect of this medical process. Though the laws are still undeveloped with many loopholes, we hope necessary reforms will fix these issues.


Court Judgments on IVF

In vitro fertilization was invented to help people who want to have children but who do not have this opportunity. Recently, taking into account the increasing trend towards the use of artificial insemination the moral and ethical issues of this topic are increasingly becoming the subject of litigation. Since the judicial practice has little experience in this matter throughout the post-Soviet states the court judgments on IVF are mainly taken with an orientation toward such cases at the European Court of Human Rights.

Embryo as Subject or Object

Within the IVF process obtaining more embryos than required for transplantation is a normal phenomenon. The emerging regular disputes about acceptability of various manipulations with them often relate to such topics as the rights of the embryo. Due to the fact that today there is no single point of view around the world concerning whether the embryo is a subject of legal relations or the subject of various disputes such trials cause unprecedented excitement in the media.

A vivid example was the trial for the embryos of two former spouses from the city of Cherkessk in the Russian Federation. After an unsuccessful attempt of IVF in 2016 the couple had 6 embryos for cryopreservation. Young people could not stand the test and decided to break up. At property division there was a dispute about the future of frozen embryos. According to the agreement on cryopreservation signed by them termination of storage of embryos and their utilization were carried out at the request of one of the spouses.

This right was used by the man who appealed to the fertility center where the embryos were stored with a request to terminate their storage and ban participation in donor programs. The former spouse responded to this by filing a claim in which she asked to recognize the actions of her husband as invalid. The embryo case caused a wide discussion and once again raised the issue of legal status of the embryo. In these proceedings the Cherkessk court equated embryos to the subject of the dispute based on the materials of the case of Natalie Evans to the United Kingdom where in a similar situation the European Court of Human Rights satisfied the demands of the former boyfriend of Natalie to dispose of biological material.

Claims against Clinics

Judicial proceedings related to in vitro fertilization where the subject of the dispute is money are rather often. Women who failed to get pregnant after the IVF procedure sue to recover funds from clinics where the procedure was performed. The most frequent arguments in such cases are those about insufficient information on the possible consequences from IVF specialists, improperly selected preparations, doses, wrongly chosen methods of artificial insemination – IVF, Ixia, IVF + Ixia and others, which led to an unsuccessful attempt of IVF.

The second most popular are the charges with accusation of IVF medical error because of which there was a confusion of biological materials and during the fertilization or transplantation "non-native" cells were used. In such situations plaintiffs ask to compensate for significant moral damage, in some cases to deprive the medical institution of a license.

To avoid such situations a couple deciding to resort to IVF procedure should carefully select a clinic. It is also necessary that the contract is properly drafted and that the legal adviser competent in these matters is consulted with.

Other Court Judgments on IVF

IVF for convicts is one of the unusual lawsuits that were recently considered in the Russian Federation (the case of Veronika Koroleva) and before that in other countries of the world. The essence of the requirement is to allow the authorities to carry out in vitro fertilization to the wives of convicted men. In the whole world only a few cases are known when the court has satisfied such claims of the plaintiff. The argument is the civil right of every person to have offspring.

This gap in the legislation is broad enough as there are no clear criteria for determining the possibility of such a procedure for persons serving sentences in detention facilities. It seems like it is a right but it’s practically impossible to implement it. In such cases the way out is the use of donor sperm, often it is the ejaculate of the relatives of the convicted husband.

It is logical to assume that when a person is forced to turn to ART a similar decision carries a certain extent of suffering. Accordingly, various kinds of disputes on this topic are sometimes shocking. But such are the realities and it is risky to close one’s eyes to them. It is better to have information and be prepared for all possible consequences.


Does IVF Increase Risk of Cancer?

Almost every woman dreams of having a child. Although the female body was created to give birth to children, there may be some situations when women cannot get pregnant. At this point, fertility-challenged couples have to resort to assisted reproductive technologies. And the method of extracorporeal fertilization (IVF) is one of the solutions to use. In-vitro fertilization is believed to be an effective procedure that allows fertility-challenged couples to have their biological children. However, instead of performing a treatment, many people wonder if IVF increases the risk of cancer and what can be done about that. Let us get all this straightened out.

What’s the Truth?

Can in-vitro fertilization be the cause of oncology? Do IVF drugs cause cancer? Many scientists around the world have been trying to find substantial evidence that would clearly confirm the development of cancer due to in-vitro fertilization. No connection between the two has been found. Therefore, women who decide to undergo the treatment can rest assured that IVF does not increase the risk of developing breast or gynecological cancer, according to the study conducted by American scientists.

Before starting the procedure, the woman undergoes a full medical examination. It is aimed at determining the general health condition of the patient as well as tumor markers if you are at risk for oncology development. Among the required tests, the female will have to conduct mammography and ultrasound investigation, which allows identifying the development of oncology at an early stage with its further treatment.

If you wonder whether hormonal drugs used in IVF cause cancer, we affirm that there’s nothing to worry about. Of course, if you have already been diagnosed with a tumor, intense hormonal therapy can activate the process. Therefore, at an initial stage of the procedure, patients undergo a thorough examination, which includes the following tests:

  • ultrasound of pelvic organs, and mammary glands, or mammography;
  • cytological examination of cervical smears;
  • blood test.


Based on the above mentioned data, you shouldn’t worry about the risk of cancer development due to in-vitro fertilization. However, it is necessary to take care of your health. Before entering the IVF program, you are to undergo a comprehensive medical examination, visit the gynecologist and undergo a regular check-up.


Can IVF Cause Ovarian Cancer?

The IVF method of fertilization is extremely popular today because of its high success rate. Many fertility-challenged couples become parents with the help of this technique. However, IVF has a strong influence on the health of a woman who wants to become a mother or a surrogate mother. It is connected with the fact that a potential mother must take a preparation course of hormonal drugs that help to accept the fetus and then go through a full term pregnancy.

IVF as a Cause of Ovarian Cancer: True or False?

The preparatory course of hormones before the IVF process itself influences female health without doubt. Does ivf cause ovarian cancer? This question divided all reproductive scientists into two camps. Let us consider both viewpoints. On the one hand, a preparatory course of hormones in case of IVF, surrogate maternity, and egg donation influences women’s health in a considerable manner:

  • if a particular woman has unlucky heredity in the sphere of cancerous diseases;
  • if a woman had many attempts of IVF but still cannot become a mother;
  • if a woman is too young.

In all aforementioned cases, the IVF procedure can be regarded as a potential cause of ovarian cancer. However, there is still no exact data about this fact, only theories that are still not supported with researched evidence. In addition, ovarian cancer after IVF does not occur too often: the cases of ovarian cancer (or other types of gynecological cancer) affect only 15 in 10,000 women after the IVF procedure. Therefore, one should consider the pros of IVF and make a decision regarding the comparative risks and benefits of the procedure:

  • The risk of ovarian cancer is higher during the first three years after IVF, and all women who became mothers with the help of this procedure should have regular screening, to prevent the risks.
  • The IVF procedure can be a good way to give birth to a child for women over 35 years old.
  • IVF is also good for couples who cannot become parents in a natural way, although they have already been examined completely. In this case, the procedure of IVF is considered an effective way out of such a situation.

All in all, the question "Can ivf cause ovarian cancer?" still remains undetermined. The risk exists, so an intended or a surrogate mother should be under constant medical control before pregnancy and during all this period as well. However, the possibility of such serious consequence is very low. In addition, each woman who becomes a mother with the help of IVF should take medical examinations regularly. From this very point of view, the risk of cancer is minimal, and it is not the reason to refuse the IVF as a method.

If you want to become a mother with the help of IVF, a surrogate mother, or an egg donor, you should not refuse this way at all because of potential disease. To take all necessary precautions, pay more attention to the actual state of your health in general and undergo all necessary medical tests regularly. There are efficient way of cancer prevention, so if the intended mother has a respective negative health history in the family, she should take the concern early and address this issue with prevention, in order to undergo IVF process one-two years later, when her health will not be compromised.

ivf pregnancy

Does IVF Cause Ovarian Cysts?

In order to have children, many women will stop at nothing. And when attempts at conceiving a child in a traditional way do not bring the long-awaited pregnancy, they start looking for ways to find the solution and use different possibilities of modern medicine. One of the procedures that make it possible for fertility-challenged couples to bear their biological child is in vitro fertilization (IVF).

This assisted reproductive technology has proved to be an effective method of treating infertility with considerably high success rates. There are many myths about the procedure, and some of them make couples refuse from undergoing IVF treatment because of so-called potential risks it can cause. Many women wonder does IVF cause ovarian cysts and what are the consequences of the procedure. Let us get all this straightened out.

IVF Causes Ovarian Cyst – Truth or Lie?

Can IVF cause ovarian cysts? What are the real consequences of the procedure? These are the questions that bother many. Of course, like any other procedure, in vitro fertilization may bring some consequences to the female body apart from pregnancy. However, these have nothing to do with ovarian cyst. The condition is usually caused by other factors.

Real Consequences of IVF

One of the most significant and common consequences of IVF is the hyperstimulation syndrome. In order for the body to produce eggs to be fertilized outside the female body, patients are prescribed hormones in large doses. Their intake can cause an increase in the size of the ovaries, which can be observed based on the following symptoms:

  • abdominal pain, swelling;
  • formation of fluid in the abdomen (ascites);
  • decrease in the amount of urine;
  • nausea;
  • diarrhea;
  • liver dysfunction;
  • mood swings.

In most cases, the hyperstimulation syndrome occurs in mild or moderate forms, which are successfully treated, without a patient experiencing a serious discomfort. In addition to the syndrome of ovarian hyperstimulation, there may be some other complications. The immediate consequences of IVF are the following ones:

  • Allergy to drugs that are used for hyperstimulation or anesthesia;
  • Inflammatory processes, which may be, for example, a consequence of puncture of follicles, or transfer of embryos inaccurately carried out;
  • Bleeding after a puncture caused by the damage of blood vessels;
  • Problems in the digestive system caused by large doses of hormonal drugs;
  • Weakness or dizziness; these are individual reactions to procedures.

The above mentioned problems are usually solved under the supervision of a doctor and do not cause any threat to the health of the patient. In this case, their negative impact on the body is reduced to a minimum.

Ovarian Cysts

The function of ovaries is closely connected with the endocrine profile of the body; therefore, the development of cystic formations can be caused by the following factors:

  • emotional overstrain;
  • violation of the menstrual cycle;
  • hormonal changes;
  • taking a number of medications;
  • obesity;
  • inflammatory diseases;
  • genetic predisposition;
  • irregular sex life;
  • local circulatory disturbance in the ovary.

As you can see, the above reasons causing ovarian cysts have nothing to do with IVF. If you have been diagnosed with ovarian cysts, we strongly advise you consult your gynecologist to find individual treatment for you.


IVF Questions to Ask

Are you planning to undergo an IVF procedure to have your own children? If you do, then it is necessary to approach the process with all the responsibility, and don’t be afraid or shy to ask questions. Eventually, it is your earned money that you are going to pay, and the life and health of your future child that you are expecting to have. Examining and answering such ivf questions will enable you to make better mental, lifestyle, and financial preparations. In the following sections of our post, we discuss some of these questions and what you can actually expect from the procedure.

How many eggs do I hope to retrieve?

Before undergoing this procedure, consider the number of eggs you expect to retrieve. This question is important because more eggs increase your prospects of conceiving. However, you don’t need to worry about producing dozens of eggs. You only need to discuss with your doctor the medications needed to be used to produce the amount of eggs enough for the successful procedure.

How much will it cost?

Since IVF is not a charity donation from The Red Cross, you should approach it with figures in mind. It is important to consider the cost of the procedure as one of the leading ivf questions to ask before undergoing it. So, settle this question because all the other questions will not benefit you if you suddenly lack means to undergo IVF. On average, a good quality procedure costs between $8,000 and $10,000. It is also important to be wary of unnecessarily overpriced services, since some of them are mere marketing gimmicks. Inversely, avoid cheap ones because many of them have compromised quality.

How many embryos do I want?

When considering in vitro fertilization questions to ask before undergoing the procedure, it is prudent to think about this. You need to determine a given number of embryos you want to be implanted in your womb. This question is critical since the more embryos you get, the higher the chances of getting multiple births. If you are looking for multiples, then more is better. However, it is needful to discuss these things with your doctor to get what fits your family needs best.

How will IVF drugs affect me?

All medical processes, especially surgical ones, have effects and side effects. Therefore, this question should be included in your list. It is necessary to consider the emotional and physical effects IVF will have on your life. Also, take time and discuss all these matters with your doctor. For instance, an average IVF will include side effects such as mood changes, nausea, fatigue, and difficulty sleeping.

What is the success rate?

After doing everything, you wouldn’t like to go home empty-handed, that is, without an expected baby. Therefore, consider the success rate of the procedure because if you can’t conceive, all the efforts, the expenses, and your hopes and expectations are vain. You have to ask the clinic about their success rate among women within your age group and with the same infertility challenges.

What challenges do you foresee me facing?

Before proceeding, you have to ask your doctor about the potential challenges you could face based on your own medical history. There are always certain health factors that may influence the process or result in every particular case.

Who will you be working with?

It is also important to ask about the person you will work with. You have to be sure whether it will be a doctor or nurse. This way, you will be better placed to meet the person and build effective communication with them as you go through the process together.

What adjustments should I make to boost my chances of conception?

Lastly, it is also necessary to ask about any crucial lifestyle adjustment you will need to make to boost your chances of conception. For instance, the doctor may advise you to change your eating habits, reduce stress, increase physical activity, stop smoking, and quit alcohol.

You are now abreast with the fundamental in vitro fertilization questions and answers. With these in vitro fertilization answers to crucial questions at your fingertips, you will face the process from an informed and empowered position. in case you feel that answers you get do not satisfy you, you will be able to quit the unpromising clinic and find a better place.

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