What is Artificial Insemination in Humans?

Wonder what is artificial insemination and how it is carried out? It can be of two different types: ordinary insemination and IVF. The former involves the fertilization of the egg in natural conditions (that is, inside the female body), while in the second case, the fertilization is carried out outside the female body. Both reproductive techniques are designed to help conceive a child, but each of them has its own features.

The Simplest Method of Artificial Insemination

By dint of the method of artificial insemination, sperm is injected with a catheter into the uterine cavity. That is, everything happens in much the same way as during natural fertilization. There is a slight difference between what is artificial insemination by donor and what is artificial insemination by husband. In the first case, the donor sperm is used for the fertilization and it can be processed in some way, while the second type of insemination implies using sperm of a partner, typically unprocessed.

The method of artificial fertilization by donor is used in cases when a single woman wants to have a child. However, couples often resort to it when natural conception is impossible for some reason. Amongst the most spread reasons are the following ones:

  • vaginismus;
  • disorders of sexual vigor or ejaculation;
  • decreased sperm mobility;
  • incurable cervicitis;
  • immunological incompatibility (when cervical mucus contains specific antibodies to the partner's sperm).

 If the couple decided to resort to artificial insemination, then both partners should already have the results of analyzes and studies that reveal the cause of infertility. However, before the procedure, it is necessary to go through the following stages of preparation:

  • examination from a therapist and a gynecologist;
  • analysis of smears of infection;
  • a blood test for HIV and viral hepatitis;
  • determining the time of ovulation;
  • spermogram (for men);
  • examination of the fallopian tubes and uterus.

 

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If no contraindications are found, fertilization is carried out. For that, you need to wait for ovulation (ovulation is sometimes stimulated by medication). In the second method, the sperm is taken from the partner (not earlier than 2-3 hours before the procedure). In case of fertilization with donor sperm, the frozen material is used. The semen is pre-treated – the spermatozoa are separated from the seminal fluid. The resulting substance is moved into the uterus by means of a catheter. This process takes only a few minutes and is completely painless.

Those who know what is artificial insemination in humans and have undergone the procedure know that the effectiveness of the method is not particularly high. On average, pregnancy after the first artificial fertilization occurs in 12% cases. However, the method has many benefits, including simplicity and low cost.


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Insemination IVF artificial fertilization


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